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Jinhua in Taiping huanyu zhi

From the Universal Geography of the Taiping Reign Period (977-84)

by Yue Shi (930-1007),


Wu Prefecture Dongyang Commandery, today the seat is at Jinhua county. In the Tribute of Yu it is territory in the Yang Region. During the Spring and Autumn period and Warring States period it was the western boundary of [the Kingdom of] Yue…. In the 7 th year of the "Martial Virtue" (Wude) reign period (624) Jin Prefecture was abolished and Yiwu County was brought under Wu. In the 8 th year Lizhou was abolished and Yongkang County [where it had been situated] together with Qu Prefecture's Xian'an County were brought under Wu. In addition Huzhou was abolished and it was brought under Xin'an . Changshan County was incorporated into Jinhua County. In the 8 th year of the “Virtuous Prospect” (Zhenguan) reign period (634) it was again divided and Longqiu County was established. In the 5 th year of the “All Persevere” (Xianheng) reign period (674) the two counties Lanxi and Changshan were established. In 2 nd year of the “He Governs with Ease” ( Zhuigong ) reign period (685) the three counties of Longqiu , Xin'an , and Changshan were divided off to create Qu Prefecture. In addition Dongyang County was established. In the 2 nd year of the “Heaven Bestows” (Tianshou reign period (691) Wuyi County was established. In the 1 st year of the “Heaven's Treasure” (Tianbao) reign period (742) Wu Prefecture was changed to Dongyang Commandery. In the 1 st year of the “Creation's Source” ( Qianyuan ) reign period (758) it was once again became Wu Prefecture. In the 4 th year of the “Heaven's Fortune” ( Tianfu ) reign period of the Jin dynasty (939) it was raised to [headquarters of] the Military Commissioner of the Martial and Victorious Army (Wusheng jun jiedu). Our dynasty has followed this.

Managed counties: 7

          Jinhua, Dongyang, Yiwu, Lanxi, Yongkang, Wucheng, and Puyang


Prefectural extent

East to west 241 li . South to north 260 li .

The four directions and eight reaches

Northwest to the Eastern Capital [Kaifeng]: 2620 li.
Northwest to the Western Capital [Luoyang]: 3305 li.
Northwest to Chang'an 3895 li.
East to Yue prefecture 480 li.
South to Chu Prefecture 288 li.
West to Qu Prefecture 192 li.
North to Mu Prefecture 180 li.
Southeast to Tai Prefecture 612 li.
Southwest to the border of Songyang county in Chu Prefecture 150 li.
Northwest to Mu Prefecture 160 li by land and 180 li by water.
Southwest to Yue Prefecture 390 li.


Tang, Kaiyuan reign period, 14,300

Our dynasty:           host households 33,982
                              guest households 64



The Treatise on Commanderies and Principalities says it is Yangzhou's eastern frontier and has precisely the territory of Eastern Yue. In Han times this territory belonged to Guiji Commandery. Wu was Dongyang Commandery. The custom of the populace is to be quick tempered, somewhat unreliable, and to like profane religious offerings.

Historical Figures

Yang Yan, honorific Jiping, of Wushang [=Yiwu]. As prefect of Lingling he piled lime on the brush so that the tails of the horses stirred it up and the rebels were defeated.
Luo Tong of Wushang, honorific Gongxu, of Wushang [=Yiwu]. He followed Lu Sun in destroying the state of Shu.
Luo Binwang of Yiwu, [a famous writer].
In the Tang, Xu Anzhen of Lanxi, [a famous writer].

Local Products

Floss silk, thick silk cloth, thin silk cloth

Jinhua County formerly 45 cantons; today 24 cantons Originally territory in Wushang[=Yiwu] County in the Han dynasty. Later in 192 if was divided to create Changshan County and brought under Guiji Commandery. In 266 the state of Wu established Dongyang Commandery which governed Wushang. The Treatise on Geography in the Record of the State of Wu says: It belongs to Dongyang Commandery. The Brief Record of Famous Mountains says: There is a Changshan (“Long Mountain”) to the northeast of the county. The Sui dynasty changed Changshan to Jinhua. In my view Jinhua was an alternative name for Changshan. Today it is Jinhua County.  

Changshan (“Long Mountain”) is 20 li south of the County. The Treatise [on Commanderies and Counties] of the Primal Harmony Reign Period states that it is to the north Another name for it is Jinhua Mountain.   Where Master Red Pine apprehended the Way. The Treatise on Geography in the Record of the State of Wu says: the place where the Immortal of the Changshan picked medicinal herbs is called Changshan (Long Mountain). South of the mountains there is a Spring Grass Peak and a Bent Bamboo Peak. No vines grow in these peaks. They only produce Dragon Whisker Reeds which are not suitable for making mats but their pith can be used for lamp wicks. The Master Who Embraces Simplicity quotes Zuo Fangyan saying that this mountain is a place where you can make the cinnabar of immortality and avoid the dangers of war and flood. says that Jinhua Mountain extends for over 300 li .

Bi Ridge. The Treatise on the Geography of the Realm states that below Bi Ridge in Dongyang there is Cash Ridge (Qianling). People have often found large-sized coins at the base of this peak. Today it is popularly known as Cash Ridge.

Copper Mountain (Tongshan) is 30 li south of the county. The Record of Dongyang states that at the foot of the mountain there is a spring, the color of the water is pure white; it is known as Copper Spring. However, I note that the Garden of Oddities states that under the state of Wu a troop 500 hundred strong broke into a cave and found a copper cauldron. Just when they were about to break it water gushed forth from it; it formed a lake and drowned people.

The Stone Boiler. According to the Record of Dongyang on top of Hun Mountain there was a single boulder as tall as thirty lengths; since it had the shape of a boiler for steaming rice it was called the Stone Boiler.

The river: The Treatise on Commanderies and Principalities states that Jinhua County took its name from the mountain. South of the city walls along the water on top of a hill there was a storied building called the Yuanchang Tower. Shen Yue (441-513) of the Song dynasty recited poems here.

Red Pine Torrent: Master Red Pine traveled in Jinhua Mountain; he immolated himself and was transformed [into an immortal]. On the mountain there is a shrine for Red Pine. The torrent comes out of the mountain, thus it is called Red Pine Torrent.

Mr. Xu's Lake: The Treatise on Commanderies and Principalities states that it is on Long Mountain (Changshan) and has a circumference of 486 paces. Once there was a Mr. Xu who climbed the mountain up to the lake where he happened on two people gambling. They said they were Master Red Pine and Sir Anqi . The ladled out lake water as wine to drink and Mr. Xu got drunk. When he sobered he did not see the two men but he was covered with the Sumang plant. At that point Mr. Xu had regrets. This is how the mountain got its name. Today the foundation of a Mr. Xu's house is at the bottom of the mountain. There is a “Numinous Power Peak” ( Lingyan ) Monastery there. After he quit his office Liu Jun (462-521), honorific Xiaobo , of the Liang dynasty lived on the mountain to the east of this lake. He wrote the Garden [Literature] Anthology in 120 scrolls.


Dongyang County East 150 li. Originally 39 cantons. Originally territory in Wushang County. In the “Treatise on Geography” of the History of the Han it belongs to Guiji Commandery. In 2 nd year of the “He Governs with Ease” ( Zhuigong ) reign period (685) it was created by division from Wushang and took the name of the former commandery of Dongyang.

Dongyang River. One source is in the south; it comes across the frontier from Yongkang and flows into Jinhua County where it comes together to form a single water known as Dongyang River.


Yiwu County Northeast 115 li. Formerly 29 cantons, today 26 cantons. The Garden of Oddities states that Yan Wu of Dongyang was known for his pure filial piety. A flock of crows helped him by picking up clods of earth with their beaks to build a grave and the crows' beaks were all injured. The whole area thought this was brought about by his perfect filial piety, thus the county took the name Wushang (Crows Injured). In the 4 th year of the “Martial Virtue” ( Wude ) reign period (621) Gang Prefecture was established here. Wushang was divided to create Huachuan county. In the 7 th year both the prefecture and county were abolished and Wushange was changed to Yiwu (Righteous Crows) County.

Yunhuang (Cloud Yellow) Mountain is 35 li south of the county. In the mountain there are many black bears and red wild cats.

Ge Mountain. The Treatise on Commanderies and Principalities states that at Ge Mountain in Dongyang the water at the foot of the mountain was navigable all the way to Linhai (on the coast). Once there was a man on a boat going by who saw a girl at the foot of the mountain. She was drawing water and climbed the mountain singing. She had a beautiful figure. The man on the boat bothered her, so angering the spirit that three boulders fell down and blocked the source of the water making it impassable to boats. On the side of the mountain there is a Mingpu Temple. It has a cantilevered structure over the stream several lengths high and forty lengths long with room enough for 100 people to sit.


Lanxi County Northwest 55 li , originally 24 cantons. Originally territory in Jinhua. In the 8 th month of the 5 th year of the “All Persevere” ( Xianheng ) reign period (674) the western frontier of Jinhua was divided to create Lanxi County. The Record of Dongyang states that at the foot of Longqiu Mountain is Orchid Stream (Lanxi), it takes its name from this.

Lanyin (North Orchid) Mountain is 5 li west of the county. Another name for it is Heng (Transverse) Mountain. It runs to the Jie'er (Cut in Two) River.

Fengzi (Wind) Mountain is 60 li west of the county. Here are the ruins of Ge Hong's (283-343) alchemical furnace

Jiufeng (Nine Peaks) Mountain is 60 li south of the county. At its base is the study of a vice director of the secretariat in Tang, Xu Anzhen.


Yongkang County Southeast 190 li . Formerly 35 xiang, currently 24 xiang.   Originally territory in Wushang. The Record of Dongyang states that in the 8 th year of the Red Crow ( Chiwu ) reign period (245) Shangpu of Wushang was divided off to make Yongkang County under Guiji Commandery. Sui abolished it when it vanquished Chen. In the 8 th year of the “Martial Virtue” ( Wude ) reign period (625) of Tang it was reestablished.

Shiweng (Stone Old Man) Mountain is 14 li south of the county. The Record of Wu states that in Yongkang there is a Shiweng Mountain. The Classic of Mountains and Seas states that the capital of three sons of heaven is north of the sea west of Min. Guo Pu's commentary says: east of She County in Xin'an . It also quotes Mr. Zhang's Record of the Land which says that 4 li south of Yongkang County in Dongyang there is a Shicheng (Stone Wall) Mountain; on it there is a small stone wall. The Yellow Emperor once traveled through this mountain, this is the capital of the three sons of heaven.

Jinsheng (Golden Hair Ornament) Mountain is 50 li east of the county. The Treatise on Commanderies and Principalities states that there was once a man who found a golden hair ornament here, thus it took the name. On the mountain there is the Zhao Bing Shrine. Zhao Bing was adept in the mysterious arts; the temple today has no mosquitoes or insects. The Garden of Oddities states that in the days of Sun Quan a Yongkang man went into the mountain and came across an giant tortoise. On boiling it did not become tender. This is the mountain.


Wucheng County [=Wuyi County] The Treatise on the Geography of the Realm states that in the 8 th year of the “Red Crow” ( Chiwu ) reign period (245) of Wu it was established by division from Yongkang County of Wushang. Sui Abolished it. It was reestablished in the 2 nd year “Heaven Bestows” ( Tianshou ) reign period (691) of Tang by dividing off the western frontier of Yongkang.

Dajia (Big Family) Mountain is 20 li southwest of the county. When clouds rose at Dajia it would rain at Xinfu (New Wife) Mountain, it thus came to be seen as a barometer.

Xinfu (New Wife) Mountain was renamed from Dajia Mountain. On the mountain there is a small boulder leaning over like a wife, thus it was named.

Puyang County [=Pujiang County] Northeast 120 li ; originally 14 cantons. In the 13 th year of the “Heaven's Treasure” ( Tianbao ) reign period (754) the towns on Yiwu's northern border were broken off to establish Puyang County. Shortly thereafter two cantons on Lanxis western frontier were transferred and two village districts in Fuyang County in Hang prefecture were brought under it.

The Puyang River is 30 li west of the county, the county took its name from this mountain.


(a) This is at odds with the Yuanhe junxian zhi which gives 99,409 households for the Kaiyuan reign period.

(b) The text mistakenly writes Wu 吳 in place of Wu 婺

(c) Indeed, the mountain is to the north of the county seat.

(d) Bi, probably after the constellation of that name (roughly equivalent to Hyades ). However,

(e) A “length” ( zhang ) is about eight feet.